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NC Buddhist Vihara

Bodhi Lankarama Buddhist Temple

entire sutta
chant
         
ONCE
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LOOP
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ONCE
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LOOP
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  Pali text (SLTP,[2] Ānandajoti, 2007)[3]
& English translation (Ñanamoli, 1987)
  glossary
(Rhys Davids
& Stede, 1921-25
)
 
verse 1     measure 1[4] measure 2 measure 3 measure 4     For a full definition,
click on a Pali word below.
 
[play] [play]
half lines             karaṇīya: to be done.
attha: good.
kusala: skillful.
[play] [play]            
1a. Ka ra ṇī ya m at tha  ku sa le na [5]   
  What should be done by one skillful in good      
[play] [play]             yaṃ taṃ: namely.
santi: peace.
pada: path.
abhisameti: attain.
1b. yaṃ   taṃ   san taṃ   pa daṃ   a bhi sa mec ca  
  So as to gain the State of Peace is this:      
[play] [play]             sakka: able.
uju: direct.
ca or c': and.
sūju: upright.
1c. Sak ko   u   ca     ca    
  Let him be able, and upright and straight,      
[play] [play]             su+vaca: compliant.
assa: might be.
mudu: tender.
an-: not.
atimāna: conceit.
1d. su va co   c'as sa   mu du   a na ti  
  Easy to speak to, gentle, and not proud,      
verse 2              
[play] [play]
half lines             santussaka: content.
subhara: easy to support.
[play] [play]            
2a. San tus sa ko   ca   su bha ro   ca    
  Contented too, supported easily,      
[play] [play]             appa+kicca: of few tasks.
sallahuka: light.
vutti: livelihood.
2b. ap pa kic co   ca   sal la hu ka vut ti  
  With few tasks, and living very lightly;      
[play] [play]             santi: peace.
indriya: faculty.
nipaka: prudent.
2c. San tin dri yo   ca   ni pa ko   ca    
  His faculties serene, prudent, ...      
[play] [play]             appagabbha: modest.
kula: clan.
an-: not.
anugiddha: coveting.
2d. ap pa gab bho   ku le su   a na nu gid dho [6] 
  and modest, // Unswayed by the emotions of the clans;    
verse 3              
[play] [play]
half lines             na: not.
khudda: trifling.
samācarati: act.
kiñci: whoever.
[play] [play]            
3a. Na   ca   khud daṃ   sa ca re   kiñ ci [7]   
  And let him never do the slightest thing      
[play] [play]             yena: where.
viññū: wise.
para: higher; other.
upavadati: blame.
3b. ye na   viñ ñū   pa re   u pa va dey yuṃ  
  That other wise men might hold blamable.      
[play] [play]             sukhin: being well.
: or.
khemin: secure.
hoti: to be.
3c. Su khi no     khe mi no   hon tu [8]   
  (And let him think:) "In safety and in bliss      
[play] [play]             sabba: all.
satta: creature.
bhavati: be.
sukhita: happy.
atta: oneself.
3d. sab be   sat   bha van tu   su khi tat  
  May creatures all be of a blissful heart.      
verse 4              
[play] [play]
half lines             ya: which.
keci: whoever.
pāṇa: living.
bhūta: being.
atthi: exists.
[play] [play]            
4a. Ye   ke ci   ṇa   bhū tat thi    
  Whatever breathing beings there may be.      
[play] [play]             tasa: trembling.
thāvara: firm.
anavasesa: completely.
4b. ta     thā va     a na va se [9] 
  No matter whether they are frail or firm, // With none excepted,    
[play] [play]             dīgha: long.
mahant: big.
4c. ghā     ye   ma han   [10]   
  ... be they long or big      
[play] [play]             majjhima: medium.
rassa: short.
aṇu: small.
thūla: compact.
4d. maj jhi [11]   ras sa ṇu ka thū [12] 
  Or middle-sized, or be they short or small // Or thick,    
verse 5              
[play] [play]
half lines             diṭṭhā: seen.
yeva: also.
addiṭṭhā: not seen.
[play] [play]            
5a. Diṭ ṭhā     ye va[13]   ad diṭ ṭhā [14]   
  ... as well as those seen or unseen,      
[play] [play]             dūra: far.
vasati: dwell.
avidūra: near.
5b. ye   ca   re   va san ti   a vi re  
  Or whether they are dwelling far or near,      
[play] [play]             bhūta: born.
sambhavati: arise.
5c. Bhū     sam bha ve   [15]   
  Existing or yet seeking to exist.      
[play] [play]             sabba: all.
satta: creature.
bhavati: be.
sukhita: happy.
atta: oneself.
5d. sab be   sat   bha van tu   su khi tat  
  May creatures all be of a blissful heart.      
verse 6              
[play] [play]
half lines             na: not.
para: (an)other.
nikaroti: bring down.
[play] [play]            
6a. Na   pa ro   pa raṃ   ni kub be tha    
  Let no one work another one's undoing      
[play] [play]             na: not.
atimaññati: despise.
katthaci: anywhere.
naṃ: him, her.
kañci: whomever.
6b. ti mañ ñe tha   kat tha ci   naṃ   kañ ci [16] 
  Or even slight him at all anywhere:      
[play] [play]             byārosanā: causing anger.
paṭigha: reactive.
saññā: perception.
6c. byā ro sa   pa ṭi gha sañ ñā    
  And ... [t]hrough provocation or resentful thought ...[17]    
[play] [play]             na: not.
aññam-añña: each other.
dukkha: suffering.
icchati: wish.
6d. nāñ ña mañ ñas sa   duk kha mic chey ya  
  ... never let them wish each other ill ...."[17]      
verse 7              
[play] [play]
half lines             mātā: mother.
yathā: as.
niya: one's own.
putta: son.
[play] [play]            
7a.   ya thā   ni yaṃ   put taṃ    
  And just as might a mother ...      
[play] [play]             āyu: life.
eka: only one.
putta: son.
anurakkhati: watch over.
7b. ā yu   e ka put ta ma nu rak khe  
  ... with her life // Protect the son that was her only child,    
[play] [play]             eva: so.
pi: and.
sabba: all.
bhūta: being.
7c. E vam pi   sab ba bhū te    
  So let him then for every living thing      
[play] [play]             mānasa: mind.
bhavati: become.
aparimaṇa: without limit.
7d. na saṃ   bhā va ye   a pa ri ṇaṃ [18] 
  Maintain unbounded consciousness in being;      
verse 8              
[play] [play]
half lines             metta: love.
ca: and.
sabba: all.
loka: universe.
[play] [play]            
8a. Met taṃ   ca   sab ba lo kas miṃ    
  And let him too with love for all the world      
[play] [play]             mānasa: mind.
bhavati: become.
aparimaṇa: without limit.
8b. na saṃ   bhā va ye   a pa ri ṇaṃ [18] 
  Maintain unbounded consciousness in being      
[play] [play]             uddhaṃ: above.
adho: below.
ca: and.
tiriyaṃ: horizontally.
8c. Ud dhaṃ   a dho   ca   ti ri yañ ca    
  Above, below, and all round in between,      
[play] [play]             asambādha: unobstructed.
avera: peaceable.
asapatta: without enmity.
8d. a sam dhaṃ   a ve raṃ   a sa pat taṃ [19] 
  Untroubled, with no enemy or foe.      
verse 9              
[play] [play]
half lines             tiṭṭhati: stand.
carati: move about.
nisinna: seated.
: or.
[play] [play]            
9a. Tiṭ ṭhaṃ   ca raṃ   ni sin no      
  And while he stands or walks or while he sits      
[play] [play]             sayana: lying down.
yāvatā: as far as.
assa: might be.
vigata: without.
middha: torpor.
9b. sa no     va tas sa   vi ga ta mid dho [20] 
  Or while he lies down, free from drowsiness,      
[play] [play]             etad: this.
sati: mindfulness.
adhiṭṭhāti: undertake.
9c. E taṃ   sa tiṃ   a dhiṭ ṭhey ya    
  Let him resolve upon this mindfulness:      
[play] [play]             brahma: supreme.
etad: this.
vihara: dwelling.
idha: here.
āhu: they say.
9d. brah ma me taṃ   vi raṃ   i dha hu [21] 
  This is Divine Abiding here, they say.      
verse 10              
[play] [play]
half lines             diṭṭhi: false views.
ca: and, but.
an-: not.
upagacchati: undertake.
sīla: good character.
: or.
[play] [play]            
10a. Diṭ ṭhiñ ca   a nu pa gam ma   la [22] 
  But when he has no trafficking with views, // Is virtuous, ...[23]    
[play] [play]             dassana: right insight.
sampanna: endowed with.
10b. das sa ne na   sam pan no [22]   
  ... and has perfected seeing,[23]      
[play] [play]             kāma: sense desire.
vineti: give up.
gedha: greed.
10c. me su   vi ney ya   ge dhaṃ [24]   
  And purges greed for sensual desires,      
[play] [play]             na: not. hi: for.
jātu: surely.
gabbhaseyya: womb.
puna: again.
eti: return.
iti: (end quote).
10d. na   hi   tu   gab bha sey yaṃ   pu na re ti [23] 
  He surely comes no more to any womb.      
       

Notes:

[1] NC Buddhist Vihara's chanting of the Karaniya Metta Sutta is excerpted from http://www.employees.org/~sammuthu/public/pirith1.wma. Bodhi Lankarama's chanting of the Karaniya Metta sutta is excerpted from http://www.bodhilankarama.net/Chanting/001-Protection-Chanting.mp3. For more information, see the "Acknowledgments."

For web browsers that do not embed mp3 players, a clickable blue "play" icon ([play]) is displayed; click on this icon to popup an mp3 player that will play the selected chant. Note that this page's "LOOP" feature does not work with these browsers.

Note for Firefox users: During the testing of this page with different browsers, Firefox appeared to have difficulty with consistently displaying the 104 embedded MP3 files on this page. If instead of an MP3 play button you see a white box with a red "X" in it, you can still play the embedded MP3 recording by right-clicking on the white box and then left-clicking on "Play/Pause."

[2] The primary source of this page's Pali text (found twice in the Pali canon: at Khuddakapāṭha [Khp] 9; and, at Sutta Nipāta [Sn] 1.8, verses 143-152) is the Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project (SLTP) redaction, obtained from Bodhgaya News, Gunaratana (2008), and Metta Net. In addition, in these end notes, primarily for the purpose of metrical analysis, occasional reference is made to the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD (CSCD) redaction, obtained from VRI.

[3] The invaluable metrical analysis of this sutta in Ānandajoti (2007) was repeatedly referenced to confirm or correct this web page's own scansion of this sutta.

For a few notes regarding the canonical context, commentarial backstory and modern metrical analysis concerning this sutta, see "Dating the Metta Sutta."

[4] The five measure (Pali: gaṇa) bars that vertically transverse this entire sutta are meant to support apprehension of this sutta's regular meter. For instance, if you scroll down the page of Pali text, you will notice that, in general (except for verse 10), every other line is the same length:

Similarly, within a specific measure on alternate lines, the sequence of heavy and light syllables is similar. For instance, in the second and fourth half lines of a verse, the second measure is usually composed of two heavy syllables, and the fourth measure usually contains two light syllables followed by one heavy syllable. Recognizing these rhythmic regularities helps one anticipate and memorize this sutta's chanting.

For more information on pertinent Pali prosody, see the general "Primer on Pali versification" and the "Primer on Metta Sutta versification." For an on-line text that clearly marks out this entire sutta in terms of heavy and light syllables, see Ānandajoti's invaluable "Catubhāṇavārapāḷi, A New Edition" (last update: June 2009), "Karaṇāyamettasuttaṃ." Also see Ānandajoti, 2004, & 2006; and, Warder, 1967 & 1970.

[5] Both the SLTP and CSCD redactions identify the first three Pali words of this sutta as being a single compound: Karaṇīyamatthakusalena. On this page, to increase comprehensibility, the three words are separated by hyphens: Karaṇīyam–attha–kusalena. However, in terms of chanting, the final "m" (or, if the first word were uncompounded, "ṃ") of "karaṇīyam" and the opening "at" of "attha" are chanted as one syllable: "mat."

[6] In the SLTP redaction of this text, half-line "2d" must have one non-standard five-mattā gaṇa. Thus, for instance, on this page, the third gaṇa has five mattās:

gaṇa: 1 2 3 4  
accents: o o o o o o
2d.   ap pa   gab bho     ku le su   a   na nu gid dho

Alternate solutions can be found for making this half-line more consistent with the sutta's regular meter.

Ānandajoti (2007), sutta 9, represents "kulesu" as "kulĕsu" and states in n. 04: "Metre: sometimes a syllable has been taken as light [metri causa], against its normal weight, this is indciated by a breve ... above the syllable in question." (In addition, Ānandajoti adds a ligature above the first two syllables of this word to indicate that the two initial light stresses could be scanned as one heavy syllable, to be more consistent with other gaṇas in this meter.) The resultant third gaṇa would appear metrically as:

gaṇa: 1 2 3 4  
accents: o o o o o o o
2d.   ap pa   gab bho     ku su   a   na nu gid dho

Alternately, the CSCD redaction (at http://www.tipitaka.org/romn/cscd/s0501m.mul8.xml) combines the last two words, eliding an intermediary syllable: kulesvananugiddho. This latter solution creates a third gaṇa consistent with most other even-numbered half-lines in this sutta:

gaṇa: 1 2 3 4  
accents: o o o o o
2d.   ap pa   gab bho     ku le sva   na nu gid dho

Nonetheless, each of the recorded chants of this sutta used on this web page articulates "kulesu" as identified in the SLTP redaction without substitution or elision.

[7] In the SLTP redaction of half-line "3a," there are 15 mattās — two more mattās than typically found before the caesura in this meter. As a result, Ānandajoti marks this line as "hypermetric" and includes the six-mattā phrase na ca khuddaṃ in one gaṇa (which is followed on this web page). In contrast to the SLTP's use of the ten-mattā phrase khuddaṃ samācare, the CSCD text uses the eight-mattā term khuddamācare (where ācare is perhaps a conjugate of ācarati?), thus resolving this half-line to the standard 15 mattās.

[8] In terms of scansion, Ānandajoti identifies the first syllable of khemino as "khĕ" (with a short ĕ) and associates it with a light (o) accent. In terms of the two recordings embedded on this page, the first syllable ("khe") appears to be heavy (with a long e). Thus, here, the syllable is represented as heavy () and the associated gaṇa is irregular ( o ).

[9] In the SLTP redaction of this text, half-line "4b" has 19 mattās, creating an irregular even-numbered half-line. Alternate solutions can be found for making this half-line more consistent with the sutta's regular meter.

Ānandajoti (2007), sutta 9, n. 06, states: "Metre: we need to read short a in twice in this line [metri causa]." (Such a substitution is identified as generally acceptable in the PTS PED, p. 606, definition of "vā", where it states: "In verse vā is sometimes shortened to va.") The resultant 17 mattās would appear metrically as:

gaṇa: 1 2 3 4  
accents: o o o o o o o
4b.   ta     va   thā va     va   a   na va se

Alternately, the CSCD redaction (at http://www.tipitaka.org/romn/cscd/s0501m.mul8.xml) simply combines the last two words, eliding the long a: v'anavasesā. This latter solution creates a second and third gaṇa consistent with most other even-numbered half-lines in this sutta:

gaṇa: 1 2 3 4  
accents: o o o o o
4b.   ta       thā   va   v'a   na va se

Nonetheless, each of the recorded chants of this sutta used on this web page articulates all 19 mattās identified in the SLTP redaction without substitution or elision.

[10] The SLTP redaction of half-line "4c" has 15 mattās (see, e.g., http://www.bodhgayanews.net/tipitaka.php?title=&record=8041, verse 146, second line), one or two more than the standard odd-numbered half-line for this sutta's standard meter. Ānandajoti (2007) notes: "Metre: in the first half of the pādayuga we need to read short a in va [metri causa] or possibly ...." (Ānandajoti's first suggestion is followed here in terms of the grouping of mattās into gaṇas.)

The CSCD redaction (at http://www.tipitaka.org/romn/cscd/s0501m.mul8.xml) replaces the SLTP's ye ... vā with yeva: Dīghā vā yeva mahantā. The resultant half-line could thus be scanned in regular meter as:

gaṇa: 1 2 3  
accents: o o
4c.   ghā       ye   va   ma han

This web page's recorded chants use the irregular meter established in the SLTP text.

[11] Bodhgaya News' SLTP Khp 9 text spells this word as majjha while the SLTP redaction of Khp 9 provided by MettaNet, Gunaratana (2008), and Ānandajoti (2007) as well as VRI's CSCD text all use majjhi. This web page follows the latter spelling.

[12] Unusual for lines of irregular meter in this sutta, the SLTP redaction's line "4d" is actually short one mattā. As a result, in terms of the meter, Ānandajoti suggests: "we could read rassakāṇukkathūlā, with a doubling of the consonant [i.e., the second 'k']...." The CSCD redaction leaves rassakā uncompounded: majjhimā rassakā aṇukathūlā.

[13] The syllables represented here as yeva are represented differently by different sources. As is done here, Gunaratana (2008, p. 46), the BodhgayaNews SLTP redaction, and the CSCD redaction represent the syllables as yeva; the MettaNet SLTP redaction represents them as ye va; the PTS PED (1921-25, p. 320) represents them as ye vā; and, Ānandajoti (2007) represents them as ye ca.

[14] As with line "4c" (see note [10] above), for the sake of metrical conformity, Ānandajoti suggests here that could be represented as va, or that ye could be represented as . Thus, for example, following up on the first of these suggestions, this half-line could be represented in standard meter as:

gaṇa: 1 2 3  
accents: o o
5a.   Diṭ ṭhā     va   ye va     ad diṭ ṭhā

Alternately, instead of addiṭṭha (which is consistent with this word's spelling in the PTS PED), the CSCD redaction has adiṭṭha, thus allowing for the following standard meter:

gaṇa: 1 2 3  
accents: o o
5a.   Diṭ ṭhā       ye   va   a diṭ ṭhā

[15] Consistent with the standard meter for this sutta (and allowed by the PTS PED), the CSCD redaction uses va where here (in accord with the SLTP text) is used.

[16] The line as represented here is consistent with both the SLTP redaction and the recorded chants embedded in this page. However, as represented here, the line's fourth gaṇa is irregular. To make the text more consistent with the standard meter, Ānandajoti (2007) replaces the heavy naṃ with a light năṃ. Similarly, the CSCD redaction uses na instead of naṃ.

Moreover, the CSCD redaction indicates that the last two words of this line are represented variously by different redactions with this square-bracketed note:

na kañci [naṃ kañci (sī. pī.), naṃ kiñci (syā.), na kiñci (ka.)]

Relatedly, the na(ṃ) in this line appears to possibly be open to different translations, as indicated by the PTS PED (1921-25), p. 344, where it tentatively states in its first of three definitions of "Na": "Perhaps at Sn 148."

[17] In his translation, Ñanamoli (1987) reverses the order of what are here represented as Pali text lines 6c and 6d. However, to facilitate readers' understanding of this sutta's meaning in English, on this web page Ñanamoli's translations of line 6c and 6d have been inverted (indicated by the introduction of ellipses).

[18] Bodhgaya News' SLTP Khp 9 text spells this word as aparimānaṃ while the SLTP redaction of Khp 9 provided by MettaNet, Gunaratana (2008), and Ānandajoti (2007) as well as VRI's CSCD text all use aparimāaṃ. This page follows the latter spelling.

[19] The line as represented here is consistent with both the SLTP redaction and the recorded chants embedded in this page. However, as represented here, the line's third gaṇa is irregular. To make the text more consistent with the standard meter, Ānandajoti (2007) replaces averaṃ's heavy ve with a light . The CSCD redaction compounds the last two words, averamasapattaṃ, thus eliding a mattā.

[20] The SLTP redaction of half-line "9b" has an excess of mattās. Ānandajoti (2007, n. 10) notes: "Metre: the second half of the pādayuga is very irregular, and just how we should scan it is not clear." The CSCD redaction maintains consistency with the presumed Old Gīti meter by eliding the and using vitamiddho (instead of vigatamiddho) for the last word. Given the atypical meter, this web page preserves all the syllables of the SLTP redaction while mimicking the implicit scansion of the CSCD redaction (which, for instance, allows for a typical amphibrach in the third gaṇa and a near anapest in the fourth gaṇa).

[21] The SLTP redaction of half-line "9d" has an extra mattā, represented on this web page by a five-mattā third gaṇa. To resolve this with the standard meter, Ānandajoti (2007) lightens vihāra's third syllable by shortening the last vowel: vihāră. The CSCD redaction also lightens vihāra's last syllable by compounding this word with the term that follows it, creating vihāramidhamāhu; thus, metrically, changing the trochaic -raṃ i- into the pyrrhic -ra-mi-.

[22] Given the metrical anomalies in this last verse, Warder (1970), p. 228, n. 1, suggests that this last verse is "a later addition."

Echoing Warder's observation, regarding half-line "10a," Ānandajoti (2007), n. 11, writes: "Metre: it may be we should take the first half of the pādayuga as a Siloka line showing the savipula. If it is Old Gīti it is very irregular." The CSCD redaction partially ameliorates the irregularity by doubling the g of half-line 10a's last word, anupaggamma.

The intrinsic anomalies are significantly compounded by there being a difference in the division of words between half-lines "10a" and "10b" depending on whether one is parsing the line for pure versification or for chanting. Thus, for example, Ānandajoti (2004, p. 18; similarly, 2007), who is primarily interested in the metric integrity of the verse, parses this line as follows:

Diṭṭhiñ-ca anupagamma,
sīlavā dassanena sampanno
Conversely, Gunaratana (2008, p. 48), who is primarily interested in representing the verse for devotional practices, parses this line this way:
Diṭṭhiñ ca anupagamma sīlavā
Dassanena sampanno

The recordings embedded in this web page appear to follow Gunaratana's parsing. Given that this web page is primarily meant to be an aid to Pali chanting, it is this latter parsing of line 10a/10b that is represented in this page's Pali text.

[23] In his versification of this verse, Ñanamoli (1984) follows the traditional written parsing of this line, before the Pali term sīlavā (English: "or is virtuous"). However, as explained in the immediately preceding note, the traditional chanting of this line breaks after the phrase sīlavā. Thus, Ñanamoli's line break is modified here in the service of clarifying the chanted Pali phrasing.

[24] Regarding the last full line of this sutta (half lines "10c" and "10d"), Ānandajoti (2007), n. 12, writes: "Metre: this is a Classical Gīti line as it stands, with the caesura coinciding with the end of the first half of the pādayuga. But the jagaṇa (o o) in the second half of the pādayuga is irregular, being in an odd gaṇa instead of an even one." See also Warder (1970), p. 228, n. 1, referenced in the immediately preceding endnote.

Sources:

• Ānandajoti Bhikkhu (ed. & trans.) (2004). Safeguard Recitals. Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN: 955-24-0255-7. Available in part from "Google books" at http://books.google.com/books?id=w6kxx2cDAhIC.

• Ānandajoti Bhikkhu (ver. 3.5, last update: Jan. 2006). An Outline of the Metres in the Pali Canon. Retrieved 2009 May 26 from "Ancient Buddhist Texts" at http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Textual-Studies/Outline/Outline-of-the-Metres.pdf.

• Ānandajoti Bhikkhu (ed.) (last update: March 2007). Catubhaa.navaarapaa.li, A New Edition. Retrieved 2009 May 16 from "Ancient Buddhist Texts" at http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Buddhist-Texts/X1-Catubhanavarapali/index.htm.

Bodhgaya News (Last updated: 31 March 2009). "Pali Canon Online Database." Provides search mechanism for the Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project's (SLTP) redaction of the Pali Canon and auxilary works at http://www.bodhgayanews.net/pali.htm.

Bodhi Lankarama Buddhist Temple (10 January 2009). "Bodhi Puja," led by Ānandajoti Bhikkhu. Retrieved 16 May 2009 from Bodhi Lankarama's "Chanting in Pali with English translation" page at http://www.bodhilankarama.net/Chanting/001-Bodhi-Puja.htm. A video recording (of 7 June 2009) of Ānandajoti Bhikkhu's chanting this sutta (complete with Ānandajoti Bhikkhu chanting a half-line in Pali, followed by congregants' repetition, followed by Ānandajti Bhikkhu reading his English translation of the half-line) is also available at http://www.bodhilankarama.net/Chanting/005-Mettasutta.htm.

• Gunaratana, Henepola (compiler) (2008, rev. ed.; "small format" ed.). Bhāvanā Vandanā: Devotions for Meditation. High View, WV: Bhāvanā Society. Available at http://www.lulu.com/content/paperback-book/bhavana-vandana-small-format/4637518.

• Ñanamoli Thera (trans.) (1987). "Karaniya Metta Sutta: Loving-Kindness" (Sn 1.8). Retrieved 2009 May 16 from "Access to Insight" (ATI) at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/snp/snp.1.08.nymo.html. Used with permission.

N.C. Buddhist Vihara (n.d.). "PIRITH (42min 48sec)." Retrieved 24 May 2009 from "North Carolina Buddhist Viharaya - Pirith & Sutra" at http://www.ncvihara.org/public/pirith.html.

Vipassana Research Institute (VRI) (Original redaction: 1954). "The Pali Tipitika." Provides a Roman-script flat file datebase of the Chattha Sangayana CD (CSCD) redaction of the Pali Canon, commentaries and auxilary works at http://www.tipitaka.org/romn/.

• Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The Pali Text Society's Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for this dictionary is available from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/.

• Warder, A.K. (1967). Pali Metre: A Contribution to the History of Indian Literature. London: Pali Text Society.

• Warder, A.K. (1970, 2004). Indian Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN: 81-208-1741-9.